Text courtesy of our dear friend Edson de Faria Francisco

1. Introduction

          In 1947, in the desert area of Judea, Israel, many composite manuscripts of the Bible were found, in Hebrew, in Aramaic, and in Greek. Many such manuscripts were in a fragmented state, however, were invaluable to the history of the biblical text. From then on, several archaeologists, historians, and other scientists set out to search the Dead Sea region,

in the Judean desert, for more manuscripts. Numerous documents were found in several caves at Ḥirbet Qumran, Wadi Murabba‘at, Naḥal Ḥever, Masada, Naḥal Se’elim, Naḥal Arugot and Wadi Sdeir. The best known and most important location of these is Ḥirbet Qumran (also known as just Qumran), in which a great number of biblical and nonbiblical texts were discovered in its 11 caves. {1} The texts found in the various archaeological sites mentioned are generally dated from the middle of the third century BC and beginning of the second century AD. {2} 

          Discoveries in Qumran were of a great impulse to the biblical criticism field, and mostly to the literary and textual criticism area, which greatly benefited from this valuable collection of manuscripts in Hebrew, in Aramaic, and in Greek. These manuscripts reveal a plurality of textual types of the Hebrew Bible existing in the period of the Second Temple (c. sixth century BC-first century AD) and represented on the Qumran corpus: 1. like-Masoretic texts {3} (which reflect the proto-Masoretic text); 2. texts close to the presumed Hebrew  Vorlage {4}  of the Septuagint {5}  (texts that reflect a possible Hebrew source to the Old Greek version); 3. pre-Samaritan texts {6}  (texts that reflect the Samaritan Hebrew version) and 4. non-aligned texts (text grouping that are not aligned to Masoretic, Samaritan or Septuagintal texts). {7}  Another relevant contribution of the texts is in relation to the apprehension on the process of preservation and transmission of the biblical text as a whole between the middle of the third century BC and the beginning of the second century AD, as the textual variety reflected in the four groups, the technical aspects of copying biblical texts and their transmission and reliability of the reconstruction of the Vorlage of old versions, especially the Septuagint. {8}

          In the nine-year period, from 1947 to 1956, archaeologists found several manuscripts of all books of the Hebrew Bible, with the exception of the book of Esther, in the archaeological site of Qumran. {9}  Many documents found there have already been studied by international specialists and published in academic editions. Experts of various nationalities wrote about the subject in books and in magazines specialized in the historic, archaeological and biblical fields and they greatly contributed to the dissemination of these discoveries. {10}  A few scholars who devoted their work to this subject, especially from the first generation, are the following: Eleazar L. Sukenik, Harold H. Rowley, William F. Albright, Roland G. de Vaux, André Dupont-Sommer, Yigael Yadin, Naḥman Avigad, Józef T. Milik and Géza Vermès. {11} 

         The amount of manuscript discovered in Qumran is very large. According to Tov, in the 11 caves of Qumran 930 manuscripts of biblical and nonbiblical texts were found, of which 210 to 212 are books of the Hebrew  Bible. {12}  Besides the archaeological findings in Qumran, 25 other manuscripts of biblical texts were found in different sites on the Judean Desert, such as in Wadi Murabba‘at, in Naḥal Ḥever, in Masada, and in other locations. {13} 

          Some of the nonbiblical texts located in the 11 caves of Qumran are the following: Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen), Damascus Document (CD), Manual of Discipline or Community Rule (1QS), War Rule or War Scroll (1QM), Thanksgiving Hymns or Thanksgiving Scroll (Heb. hodayôt) (1QH), Temple Scroll (11QT), Copper Scroll (3Q15), and others. Among the documents that contains comments to biblical books (Heb. pesher, explanation, interpretation) {14}  and Aramaic translations (targum), {15}  some of the most relevant are the following: pesher of Habakkuk (1QpHab),

pesher of Micah (1QpMic), pesher of Nahum (4QpNa), pesher of Psalm 37 (4QpPs 37), Targum of Job (11QtgJob) and Targum of Leviticus (4QtgLev).  {16} 

          In the present article, it will be specifically addressed the discovery of manuscripts in Qumran, for it is the most important archaeological site of the ones located in the Judean Desert. 

2. Location

          Between the winter and spring of 1947, Jum’a Muhammed and Muhammed Ahmed el-Hammed, two Arab Bedouins from the Ta’amireh tribe, {17}  would have accidentally found in the Ḥirbet {18}  Qumran region, 7.5 miles south of Jericho at the northwest of the Dead Sea, a cave with very ancient biblical and nonbiblical scrolls. Among them, there was one roll complete and other at a fragmentary state of the book of Isaiah, a commentary of the book of Habakkuk and a text on the rules of certain Jewish religious community. Later, the scholars identified such discoveries as a full manuscript of Isaiah (1QIsaa), the fragmented manuscript of Isaiah (1QIsab), the pesher of Habakkuk (1QpHab) and the Manual of Discipline or Community Rule (1QS). Afterwards, the first manuscript of Isaiah, among others, was acquired by the Syrian Orthodox Monastery of St. Mark, in Jerusalem, whose patriarch, Mar Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, was interested in taking it to the American Schools of Oriental Research in Jerusalem to submit it to experts. {19}  Scholars dated the manuscript 1QIsaa from around 150-100 BC. The same document can be dated from between 250 and 103 BC, according to the carbon-14 test, however, according to paleography studies, it is dated from 125-100 BC. The manuscript 1QIsab is more recent, having appeared between 100 and 75 BC. {20}  

          Another share of manuscripts found in Qumran was acquired by Eleazar L. Sukenik, of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who after long study on the discovery, got to the same conclusions of the American experts: the manuscripts were quite ancient, probably belonging to the Second Temple period. As a result of these evidences, Bedouins and scholars set out in search of more documents in the Qumran region and, through the period of 1952 and 1956, 10 more caves were located counting with hundreds of them. According to scholars estimate, the amount of found texts gets to 930. The totality of documents with texts of biblical content located in Qumran varies from 210 to 212. {21} 

          To this day there are divergences surrounding the identity of the Qumran community. It is said that this group may be identified with the Essenes, a branch of the Judaism from the second century BC and the first century AD, next to the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Zealots. Ancient writers such as Philo of Alexandria (25 BC-40 AD), Flavius Josephus (37/38-100 AD), Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) and the very information in the Qumran, show the existence of such clustering

       The manuscripts found in the archaeological site of Qumran are currently stored in the Shrine of the Book, also known as Heikhal ha-Sefer (Heb. Temple of the Book), a wing of the Israel Museum, in Jerusalem, Israel. {23}   Every text found in the 11 caves of Qumran was published from 1955 and 2009 in the Discoveries in the Judean Desert (DJD) series, edited by Oxford University Press. {24}  Besides the cited series, part of the texts was published by scholars by other publishers from 1950 and 2010. 

in the Judaic word of that time, however, the specialists reach no consensus about the information provided by them. The identification of the Qumran community with the Essenes continues open until the present time. {22}  

3. Characteristics of the Discovery

      The value of the discoveries in Qumran is immense, for allows to perceive how the state of transmission of biblical texts was in a former and also in a later period to the Christian era. The manuscripts found in the 11 caves date approximately from the third century BC to the first century AD. The terminus a quo (a point that determines the beginning of an action) is 250 BC and the terminus ad quem (a point that determines the end of an action) is 68 AD. {25}  The manuscripts of Qumran certify the plurality of textual types of the Hebrew Bible and divergent texts of the books of Samuel (4QSama, 4QSamb, 4QSamc) and Jeremiah (4QJerb, 4QJerd) were found, which are more related with the Septuagint text than with the Masoretic Text. Other manuscripts also attest the type of text that later would originate the Samaritan Pentateuch (4QpaleoExodm, 4QExod-Levd, 4QNumb). {26} 

     The oldest biblical manuscripts are those that emerged over the third century BC, having been found in the cave 4: 4QExodf, 4QSamb, 4QJera and 4QQoha. A few documents dated from the second century BC, such as both books of Daniel, 4QDanc and 4QDane, which date from 125 and 100 BC, deviate from the original book in just 60 years. {27}  

      The textual type of the Masoretic Text, that is, the proto-Masoretic text or like-Masoretic texts, is also considered by the Qumran corpus as the 1QIsab, among others, this being a representative. Regarding the Masoretic Text, the level of textual concordance of this scroll is perceptible, which testify the antiquity of the one preserved by the Jewish scribes in the Talmudic period and, afterward, by the Masoretes in the medieval time. Besides the 1QIsab, manuscripts like the 4QJera, among other documents, also reflects the type of text that would later originate the Masoretic Text. {28}  

      The Qumran community possibly had more appreciation for certain biblical books because they were more popular among the group’s supporters. These texts are represented by many copies found in this archaeological site (cf. table below). The amount of manuscript of biblical text composite, as much in square script  {29} as in paleo-Hebrew script, 30  , found in the 11 caves are the following: {31} 

      Likewise, in Qumran were found Deuterocanonical books (Ben Sira [2QSir], Tobit [4QTobb ar] and the epistle of Jeremiah [7QEpJer gr]), pseudo-epigraph books (book of Jubilee [4QJuba] and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs [4QLevia ar]), Targum (Job [11QtgJob] and Leviticus [4QtgLev]) and a large number of writings by the Qumran community itself as the Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen), the Manual of Discipline or Community Rule (1QS), the Temple Scroll (11QT), the War Rule or War Scroll (1QM), the Damascus Document (CD), the Thanksgiving Hymns or Thanksgiving Scroll (1QH), the Copper Scroll (3Q15), the pesher of Habakkuk (1QpHab), the pesher of Nahum (4QpNa), among others texts. In addition to this literary material, in the cave 4 were found five pieces presenting exegetical editions of the Pentateuch text, based on texts as like-Masoretic and like-Samaritan texts, denominated Reworked Pentateuch (4QRPa, 4QRPb, 4QRPc, 4QRPd and 4QRPe). {32}  According to specialists, just in the cave 4 nearly 380 documents were located, of which several were in a fragmentary state. Besides the biblical texts in Hebrew, they had also found manuscripts in Aramaic and of the Septuagint in the caves 4 and 7, in the later there were only manuscripts in Greek. Among all, caves 1, 4 and 11 provided the most important materials. {33} 

      Aside from the scriptural material, a few Jewish sacred objects as the tefillîn (Heb. phylacteries) {34}  and mezûzôt (Heb. doorposts) {35}  were also discovered at the location and these religious components kept short biblical passages (Exod 12 and 13; Deut 5; 6; 10; 11 and 32), written just by memory and not copy. A phylactery fragment was found in the caves 1, twenty-one inside the cave 4, one in the cave 5 and one in the cave 8 (1QPhyl, 4QPhyla, 4QPhylb, 4QPhylc, 4QPhyld, 5QPhyl e 8QPhyl). Seven mezûzôt fragments were found as well in the cave 4 and one in the cave 8 (4QMeza, 4QMezb, 4QMezc, 4QMezd, 4QMeze and 8QMez). {36} 

4. Textual Variants

         Through the brief illustration, both manuscripts of Qumran express that there is still a variety and fluidity of the Hebrew biblical text in the period of the Second Temple. In a few selected cases, the manuscripts of Qumran present some textual variant with each other. On the other hand, there is no textual variant between the codices ML and MA on the same excerpts of the book of Isaiah that served as an illustration. Dated from the medieval time, these two codices show that the Hebrew biblical text had already become as much as uniform as stable. {38} 

         The 4QSama (c. 50-25 BC) has a long segment in 1 Samuel 11 that cannot be found in the Hebrew biblical text of Masoretic tradition. According to scholars, this excerpt was an integrant part of the early drafting of the book of 1 Samuel. The stated manuscript of Qumran is in a very fragmentary state and the passages that are between the [ ] indicate restoration by the specialists. According to erudites, the referred excerpt of 1 Samuel 11 must have been overlooked by the Hebrew biblical text of Masoretic tradition due to a copyist error occurred at some point in the Second Temple period. {39}  

      The manuscripts of Qumran show several textual variants regarding the Hebrew biblical text of Masoretic tradition which became normative for the Judaism. Textual variants are related as much to the biblical text of Masoretic tradition, as it is to the text of other classic biblical versions, such as the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch. Part of the variants is related to some word, expression or extract of the biblical text. By way of an illustration, below is presented in English translation a few textual variants of Isaiah from two manuscripts of Qumran: the 1QIsaa (c. 150-100 BC) and the 1QIsab (c. 100-75 BC). The textual differences in both of these manuscripts are compared with the Masoretic Text, represented by two Masoretic manuscripts, the Leningrad Codex B19a (ML) (c. 1008-1009 AD) and the Aleppo Codex (MA) (c. 925-930 AD): {37} 

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       The 4QSama is yet another manuscript of great importance for it reveals that the Hebrew biblical text was not uniform and stable in the Second Temple period and had textual differences to some extent among the almost 212 biblical manuscripts found in Qumran. Such differences may be noticed in words and in expressions, as it is possible to verify in 1QIsaa and in 1QSamb and long passages as it is observed in 4QSama.  

5. Conclusion: The Importance of the Discovery

       The utmost importance of the discovery of the manuscripts in Qumran is related to the textual state of the Hebrew biblical text between the third century BC and first century AD period. The textual variants examples mentioned on this brief study of 1QIsaa, 1QIsab and 4QSama serve as a proof of the variety and fluidity of the Hebrew biblical text, validating that there was not yet stability and uniformity, only reached nearly the end of the Second Temple period (first century AD). This aspect of the manuscripts of Qumran is probably the most significant for the understanding of textual reality of the Bible in the period approached in this compact article. According to erudites, there are at least four types of text represented by the nearly 212 biblical manuscripts of Qumran: the ones reflecting the Masoretic type, the ones reflecting the Samaritan type, the ones reflecting the Septuagintal type and those which are not aligned to these three textual types. 

       Another relevant characteristic of the manuscripts of Qumran is the presence of many texts not belonging to the canon of the Hebrew Bible, as the deuterocanonical and pseudo-epigraph and texts by the Qumran community itself. Furthermore, it is established the use of Aramaic and Greek translations of scriptural material and comments to biblical texts. Certain Jewish sacred objects, such as the tefillîn and mezûzôt, are also part of the collection. This material, whether in scriptural form or in artifact form, reveals their constant use by several chains of Judaism of the Second Temple period. 

       Lastly, the manuscripts of Qumran, discovered between 1947 and 1956, radically changed the way in which the biblical text was preserved and passed on in the Second Temple period, in addition to having uncovered, in the same way, new studies on the Judaism of that period, such as the life of the various Jewish groups active at the time, such as the Essenes, among others.

6. List of Abbreviations of the Manuscripts of Qumran

Notas de Rodapé

   See Tov, 2012, 29, 99, 179, 212; idem, 2017, 29, 101, 182, 216; Würthwein, 1995, 31; Deist, 1981, 75; Gottwald, 1988, 122, 124; Pisano. 2000, 50; Trebolle Barrera, 1996, 330, 333; Brotzman, 1994, 88; Mackenzie, 1984, 761; Francisco, 2008a, 382.
   The updated date takes into account the manuscripts found in the following locations: Hirbet Qumran (c. 250 BC-68 AD), Masada (c. 50 BC-30 AD), Wadi Murabba‘at, Naḥal Ḥever, Naḥal Se’elim, Naḥal Arugot and Wadi Sdeir (c. 20 BC-115 AD), see Tov, 2012, 29, 30, 99, 179, 212; idem, 2017, 29, 30, 101, 182, 216.

   Like-Masoretic texts: one of the Hebrew textual types of the Bible emerged in the Second Temple period (c. sixth century BC-first century AD), next to the Hebrew type which gave origin to the Samaritan Pentateuch, next to that which was the Hebrew source for the Septuagint translation and next to free texts non-aligned to the three textual types mentioned. Such group of texts, also denominated proto-Masoretic text, became the favorite textual form by the Pharisee and in the circles of scribes of the Temple of Jerusalem. Afterwards, in the medieval period, it gave origin to the Masoretic Text, see Tov, 2012, 108; idem, 2017, 110; Fischer, 2013, 72; Francisco, 2008a, 383.
  4  Vorlage (lit. something put in front of, model): technical term from German provenance used by textual criticism scholars to indicate an original source of a classic biblical version (ex: the Hebrew Vorlage of the Septuagint, the Hebrew Vorlage of the Vulgate, the Hebrew Vorlage of the Aquila, etc., see Tov, 2012, 423; idem, 2017, 429; Francisco, 2008a, 649.
  5  Septuagint (lat. Seventy): Greek version of the biblical Hebrew text which emerged from the third century BC until the first century BC or until the first century AD, in Alexandria, Egypt, being produced mainly by the city’s Jewish community. It was the source for several ancient biblical versions: Vetus Latina (Old Latin), Coptic (Sahidic, Bohairic, Akhmimic), Ethiopic, Armenian, Arabic, Georgian, Old Slavonic, Syro-Hexapla and Gothic, see Tov, 2012, 422; idem, 2017, 427; Fischer, 2013, 306-307; Francisco, 2008a, 642-643.
   Pre-Samaritan texts: the biblical text as it was witnessed by the Hebrew Samaritan version emerged before the second century BC. Only the first five biblical books are recognized as canonic: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. It is not a version of the proto-Masoretic text, but a Hebrew textual type coexistent with it and with the Hebrew textual type that served as a source for the Septuagint, see Tov, 2012, 108; idem, 2017, 110; Fischer, 2013, 72; Francisco, 2008a, 383. 
   See Tov, 2008, 146-149; idem, 2012, 108-109; idem, 2017, 110-111; Fischer, 2013, 72-72.

  8  See Tov, 2012, 110-111; idem, 2017, 112-113.
 
 9  See Tov, 2012, 95; idem, 2017, 97; Fischer, 2013, 61; Vermès, 1994, 12; Deist, 1981, 77; Brotzman, 1994, 92; Pisano, 2000, 50; Shanks, 1993, xiv, xix; Trebolle Barrera, 1996, 334; Gottwald, 1988, 122; Mackenzie, 1984, 763; Francisco, 2008a, 383.
  10  Tov provides an updated list of the manuscripts found in the Judean Desert that were published and their precedence (location, cave, etc.) and in which specialized publications they appear, see Tov, 2010, 6-132. Older but partial listings can be found both in McCarter Jr, 1986, p. 82-86 and in Vermès, 1994, 323-324.
  11  See Vermès, 1994, 5.
  12  See Tov, 2008, 131; idem, 2010, 111, 113; idem, 2012, 94-95; idem, 2017, 96-97.

  13  See Tov, 2008, 129; idem, 2010, 111, 113; idem, 2012, 29, 97; idem, 2017, 99.
  14  Pesher (Heb. sense, explanation, meaning, interpretation): term applied to the manuscripts of Qumran which contains explanations or comments about the biblical text and related to eschatological events, see Tov, 2012, 421; idem, 2017, 426; Francisco, 2008a, 637.
  15  Targum (Heb. explanation, interpretation, translation, version): the term specifically denotes the version of the biblical Hebrew text to the Aramaic text. Targum usually is a form of version that goes beyond the original Hebrew and in it you can find comments, amplifications, alterations, narratives, interpretations, explanations and rabbinic traditions. Some forms appear on the second century BC, however, the better known and most important were produce between the third and fifth centuries AD, of which Targum Onqelos and Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel stand out and became official to the Judaism, see Tov, 2012, 422; idem, 2017, 427; Francisco, 2008a, 644-645.
  16  See Tov, 2012, 96; idem, 2017, 97-98; Flint, 2003, 301; Deist, 1981, 77; Brotzman, 1994, 89, 91, 92; Pisano, 2000, 50; Gottwald, 1988, 98; Mackenzie, 1984, 763; Vermès, 1994, 15; Silva, 2010, 123, 125; Francisco, 2008a, 384, 387.
  17  See Frank, 1993, 5; Mackenzie, 1984, 761; Laperrousaz, 1992, 11; Fischer, 2013, 53; Machado and Funari, 2012, 30-31; Francisco, 2008a, 385.
  18  The denomination Ḥirbet is originated in the Arab word khirbeh meaning “ruin”, see Laperrousaz, 1992, 9; Golb, 1996, 504; Francisco,2008a, 385, n. 12. The toponym can be translated as “the ruin of Qumran”. 

  19  See Frank, 1993, 8; Laperrousaz, 1992, 11; Fischer, 2013, 53; Würthwein, 1995, 32; Brotzman, 1994, 88; Mackenzie, 1984, 761; Machado and Funari, 2012, 32; Francisco, 2008a, 385.
  20  See Tov, 2012, 31, 99, n. 168; idem, 2017, 31, 100, n. 169; Roberts, 1951, 279; Trebolle Barrera, 1996, 336; Fischer, 2013, 63; Francisco, 2008a, 385. 

  21  See Tov, 2010, 111, 113; idem, 2012, 94-95; idem, 2017, 96-97; Würthwein, 1995, 31; Vermès, 1994, 11; Shanks, 1993, xiv, xvii; Laperrousaz, 1992, 10-21; Pisano, 2000, 50; Mackenzie, 1984, 761; Francisco, 2008a, 385-386.
  22  See Shanks, 1993, xxi; Shiffman, 1993, 37-52; VanderKam, 1993, 53-66.

  23  See Shanks, 1993, xx; Miller and Huber, 2006, 219.
  24  Only the Qumran Cave 4 volume. XXVII: Textes Araméens (4Q550-575, 580-582), Deuxième Partie, DJD 37, edited by Émile Puech, in the press. 

  25  See Tov, 2012, 99; idem, 2017, 101.
  26  See Tov, 2008, 147; idem, 2012, 108-109; idem, 2017, 110-111; Würthwein, 1995, 46; Trebolle Barrera, 1996, 331; Francisco, 2008a, 386.
  27  See Tov, 2012, 99; idem, 2017, 101; Francisco, 2008a, 386.  

  28  See Tov, 2012, 108, 188; idem, 2017, 110, 191; Brotzman, 1994, 96; Pisano, 2000, 51-52; Würthwein, 1995, 14, 33, 156; Trebolle Barrera, 1996, 331; Deist, 1981, 75; Francisco, 2008a, 386. According to the former estimate, nearly 60% of the biblical manuscripts discovered in Qumran were considered close to the like-Masoretic texts, see Tov, 1992, 115; Brotzman, 1994, p. 94. A few years ago, Tov reviewed such percentage correcting it to around 35%, see Tov, 2001, 115.
  29  Square script: Hebrew alphabet that has been borrowed from the Aramaic alphabetic system, have been put into practice after the Babylonian exile (fifth century BC) by the Jewish people. This alphabetic system gradually replaced the old paleo-Hebrew alphabet used in the pre-exilic period (twelfth to sixth centuries BC). The square name is because the format of the Hebrew letters is similar to a square. To this day, this alphabet is used both in the Hebrew Bible and in other texts composed in Hebrew, see Tov, 2012, 422; idem, 2017, 427; Francisco, 2008a, 640.
  30  Escrita paleohebraica: antigo alfabeto hebraico utilizado no período do Primeiro Templo (c. séc. X-VI a.C.), muito semelhante ao alfabeto fenício. Foi substituído, gradativamente, após o exílio babilônico pelo abecedário hebraico quadrático de origem aramaica, cf. Francisco, 2008, p. 635.

  31  The data above was updated having as source Tov, 2010, 113-123; idem, 2012, 96-97; idem, 2017, 98-99.

  32   Reworked Pentateuch: manuscripts from the cave 4 in Qumran, now considered biblical manuscripts. Exegetical editions of the Pentateuch based on texts such as the Proto-Masoretic (like-Masoretic texts) and the Pre-Samaritan (like-Samaritan texts). Such texts present articulated biblical texts, while rearranging some Pentateuch pericopes, insert many minor modifications and add great number of exegetical additions, see Tov, 2012, 323; idem, 2017, 328.

  33  _See Tov, 2012, 95, 96, 323; idem, 2017, 97, 98, 328; Fischer, 2013, 61; Trebolle Bar-rera, 1996, 334; Brotzman, 1994, 90-92; Pisano, 2000, 50-51; Vermès, 1994, 12; Mackenzie, 1984, 763; Francisco, 2008a, 387.

  34  Tefillîn (Heb. phylacteries): Jewish sacred object used by Jewish men during morning prayers on weekdays. Phylacteries are two little cubes manufactured in leather, one tied at the front and another tied on the left arm. Both contains four biblical passages written in small scroll bands: Exod 13:1-10; 13:11-16; Deut 6:4-9 and 11:13-21. The cubes have leather bands that served to attach them in front and on the left arm. The use is due to an ordinance in Deuteronomy 6:8, see Francisco, 2008a, 623.

  35  Mezûzah (Heb. doorpost): small involucre, usually rectangular, fixed diagonally at the right doorpost on Jewish houses. The object possesses a scroll stripe with the following biblical texts: Deut 6:4-9 and 11:13-21 The use of this sacred item is related to an ordinance found in Deuteronomy 6:9 and has two goals: to serve as a reminder of God’s commandments and to serve also as a loyalty symbol of a Jew to his Jewish nation, see Francisco, 2008a, 632.
  36  See Tov, 2012, 95; idem, 2017, 97; Brooke, 2003, 57-58; Francisco, 2008a, 388.   

  37  See Francisco, 2008b, 141.

  38  See Francisco, 2008b, 142.

  39  See Ulrich, 2010, 271; Tov, 2012, 311-312; idem, 2017, 316-317; Fischer, 2013, 64-65.

References

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BROTZMAN, Ellis R. Old Testament Textual Criticism: A Practical Intro-duction. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.

DEIST, Ferdinand E. Towards the Text of the Old Testament. 2. ed. Pretoria: N. G. Kerkboekhandel Transvaal, 1981.

FISCHER, Alexander A. O Texto do Antigo Testamento – Edição Reformulada da Introdução à Bíblia Hebraica de Ernst Würthwein. Barueri: Sociedade Bíblica do Brasil, 2013.

FLINT, Peter. “Scriptures in the Dead Sea Scrolls: the Evidence from Qumran”. In: PAUL, S. M.; KRAFT, R. A.; SCHIFFMAN, L. H.; FIELDS, W. W. (eds.). Emanuel: Studies in Hebrew Bible, Septuagint and Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor of Emanuel Tov. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 94. Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2003, 269-304.   

FRANCISCO, Edson de F. Manual da Bíblia Hebraica: Introdução ao Texto Massorético – Guia Introdutório para a Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 3. ed. São Paulo: Vida Nova, 2008a.

_____. “A Ortografia de 1QIsa e de 1QIsb e a Ortografia do Códice de Leningrado B19a e do Códice de Alepo: Diferenças e Semelhanças”. Miscelánea de Estudios Árabes y Hebraicos, séccion Hebreo 57, 2008b, 125-148.

FRANK, Harry T. “A Descoberta dos Manuscritos”. In: SHANKS, H. (org.). Para Compreender os Manuscritos do Mar Morto. 4. ed. Coleção Bereshit. Rio de Janeiro: Imago, 1993, 3-20.

GOLB, Norman. Quem Escreveu os Manuscritos do Mar Morto?. Coleção Bereshit. Rio de Janeiro: Imago, 1996.

GOTTWALD, Norman K. Introdução Socioliterária à Bíblia Hebraica. 2. ed. Coleção Bíblia e Sociologia. São Paulo: Paulus, 1988.

LAPERROUSAZ, Ernest-Marie. Os Manuscritos do Mar Morto. São Paulo: Círculo do Livro, 1992.

MACHADO, Jonas; Funari, Pedro Paulo A. Os Manuscritos do Mar Morto: Uma Introdução Atualizada. Coleção História e Arqueologia em Movimento. São Paulo: Annablume-FAPESP, 2012.

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